A State-by-State consider Coronavirus in Prisons

Since March, The Marshall Project happens to be tracking how many individuals are being sickened and killed by COVID-19 in prisons and just how commonly it offers spread around the world and within each state. Here, we are going to frequently update these numbers counting the number of men and women infected and killed nationwide plus in each jail system before the crisis abates.

This reporting had been undertaken together with The related Press.


By Nov. 10, about 182,776 individuals in jail had tested good for the infection, an 8 per cent boost through the few days before.

Brand new infections this week rose greatly for their greatest amount since the beginning of the pandemic, far outpacing the previous top during the early August. Iowa, Michigan plus the national jail system each saw a lot more than 1,000 prisoners test positive recently, while Tx prisons surpassed 2,000 new cases.

Reported situations very first peaked in late April, whenever says including Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee and Texas started mass evaluating of prisoners. Those projects proposed that coronavirus have been circulating among men and women without symptoms in much greater numbers than previously understood.

There were at least
182,776 cases
of coronavirus reported among prisoners.

132,013 prisoners have restored.

Each presents 10 new situations

Condition Total situations Per 10,000 prisoners Brand new cases eventually
Alabama 711
Alaska * 357 809
Arizona 2,667 677
Arkansas 8,343 5,302
California 16,749 1,721
Colorado 1,996 1,325
Connecticut * 1,686 1,766
Delaware * 579 1,373
Florida 16,969 2,006
Georgia 2,095 420
Hawaii * 878 2,110
Idaho 2,249 3,029
Illinois 3,008 963
Indiana 1,726 704
Iowa 2,426 3,295
Kansas 4,406 5,135
Kentucky 1,524 1,439
Louisiana 2,416 1,688
Maine 125 701
Maryland 1,039 595
Massachusetts 740 1,061
Michigan 8,295 2,400
Minnesota 2,138 2,822
Mississippi 816 523
Missouri 4,226 1,777
Montana 865 2,226
Nebraska 283
Nevada 170 147
New Hampshire 1 5
New Jersey 3,114 2,012
New Mexico 1,120 1,818
New York 1,644 444
North Carolina 4,555 1,453
North Dakota 271 2,287
Ohio 7,121 1,581
Oklahoma 4,702 2,139
Oregon 1,315 974
Pennsylvania 1,093 255
Rhode Island * 60
South Carolina 2,378 1,446
South Dakota 2,009 6,166
Tennessee 5,705 2,964
Texas 25,548 2,109
Utah 886 1,521
Vermont * 240 1,694
Virginia 4,190 1,600
Washington 537 347
West Virginia 440 1,016
Wisconsin 5,745 2,718
Wyoming 125
Federal 20,495 1,390
* An asterisk denotes condition counts such as both pre-trial detainees and sentenced prisoners under a unified system of jails and prisons.

Source: State and national prison companies


The first understood COVID-19 death of a prisoner was at Georgia whenever Anthony Cheek passed away on March 26. Cheek, who was simply 49 years of age, had been held in Lee State Prison near Albany, a hotspot when it comes to disease. Since then, at the least 1,411 various other prisoners have actually died of coronavirus-related factors. By Nov. 10, the sum total wide range of fatalities had increased by 4 % in weekly.

There were at the very least
1,412 deaths
from coronavirus reported among prisoners.

Each represents one brand new demise

Condition Total deaths Per 10,000 prisoners Brand new deaths in the long run
Alabama 28
Alaska * 0 0
Arizona 28 7
Arkansas 48 31
California 82 8
Colorado 4 3
Connecticut * 7 7
Delaware * 11 26
Florida 184 22
Georgia 79 16
Hawaii * 0 0
Idaho 4 5
Illinois 34 11
Indiana 30 12
Iowa 5 7
Kansas 9 10
Kentucky 13 12
Louisiana 30 21
Maine 0 0
Maryland 13 7
Massachusetts 8 11
Michigan 74 21
Minnesota 3 4
Mississippi 1
Missouri 22 9
Montana 2 5
Nebraska 2
Nevada 0 0
New Hampshire 0 0
New Jersey 52 34
New Mexico 5 8
New York 18 5
North Carolina 22 7
North Dakota 0 0
Ohio 111 25
Oklahoma 32 15
Oregon 16 12
Pennsylvania 17 4
Rhode Island *
South Carolina 31 19
South Dakota 1 3
Tennessee 27 14
Texas 166 14
Utah 0 0
Vermont * 0 0
Virginia 33 13
Washington 2 1
West Virginia 2 5
Wisconsin 10 5
Federal 146 10
* An asterisk denotes state matters such as both pre-trial detainees and sentenced prisoners under a unified system of jails and prisons.

Source: State and national jail agencies

What’s occurring within state

Because of the huge variations in just how many folks are becoming tested in prisons the virus, the effects of this pandemic have varied extensively between different state prison systems. The very first reported instances began popping up in Massachusetts and Georgia on March 20. In August, Hawaii, the final system whose prisoners hadn’t gotten sick, reported its very first confirmed cases of coronavirus. Here, you are able to decide to view the info for state jail system to discover how the numbers compare. For a summary of the number of cases in services run because of the national Bureau of Prisons, select the “Federal” alternative.

Each represents

Each presents one brand-new death

Understood cases

per 10,000 prisoners

Existing case information not available


per 10,000 prisoners

Existing death data not available

Examinations administered

per 10,000 prisoners

Existing assessment data not available

Prison staff

While we learn how prisoners get sick, another group are at danger during these services: correctional officials, nurses, chaplains, wardens also employees. We realize bit about how precisely coronavirus has effects on all of them, though obtained the possibility to hold it both into services and back off to their communities. it is hard to examine just how jail employees are increasingly being impacted because many are not being methodically tested.

Into the latest week, 18 states—Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Southern Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, western Virginia—released informative data on how many their workers users tested for coronavirus. In which we do know for sure about good situations, many state corrections departments worry that matter includes just the employees just who voluntarily report a diagnosis, usually during phoning away unwell.

Because the start of pandemic, significantly more than 41,949 prison personnel have actually tested positive—with brand new cases at an all-time high recently. Ninety-three deaths have been publicly reported.

There has been about
41,949 situations
of coronavirus reported among prison staff.

22,415 staff have actually restored.

Each represents 10 new instances

There has been at the very least
93 deaths
from coronavirus reported among prison staff.

Each represents one brand-new demise

The staff users inside state

We understand little about how precisely numerous staff are tested, plus in many says it’s not yet determined just how many individuals are employed in prisons now. What we do know usually in a number of states jail workers started initially to get sick ahead of the individuals they oversee. Using this tool, you can view the information for state’s prison system to discover the way the figures contrast. For a directory of how many instances in services administered because of the federal Bureau of Prisons, select “Federal” choice.

Each represents

Each presents one new demise

Known cases

per 10,000 staff

Present situation information unavailable


per 10,000 staff

Current death data unavailable

Tests administered

per 10,000 staff

Existing testing information unavailable

The Marshall venture continues to monitor and publish data on coronavirus inside our prison systems. When you yourself have changes on data to fairly share or other reviews, please e mail us at [email protected]

We are posting the raw information we have collected at data.world, together with the Associated Press, and on Github. You can easily download the data to examine for yourself or to used in pursuit. Should you utilize our information, please write to us.


Since March 26, reporters from Marshall venture together with related Press were gathering data on COVID-19 examinations administered to individuals incarcerated in most state and federal prisons, plus the staff in those facilities. We request this data weekly from condition divisions of modifications additionally the federal Bureau of Prisons; but not totally all departments provide data the day asked for. These figures have-been grouped because of the week the data ended up being collected.

For six states with unified prison and jail systems—Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, Vermont—we count screening and situation figures from both detainees waiting for trial and sentenced prisoners. Likewise, in Maryland, a number of pre-trial services in Baltimore City are included inside figures.

To approximate the rate of infection among prisoners, we gathered population data for every prison system ahead of the pandemic, about in mid-March, as well as in April and Summer. Starting the week of July 28, we updated all prisoner population figures, showing how many incarcerated adults in condition or national prisons. Prior to that, populace numbers might have included extra communities, such as for instance prisoners housed in other facilities, which were maybe not captured within our COVID-19 information. In states with unified jail and jail methods, we consist of both detainees awaiting test and sentenced prisoners.

We determine the prices of illness and death per 10,000 prisoners to accommodate the easiest contrast with most prison methods. In early versions with this project, we’d utilized an interest rate of 100,000 prisoners. An early on type of the might 27 tables counting positives and deaths mislabeled the price line using the incorrect denominator and contains been corrected.

The general U.S. rate of illness ended up being determined using instance matters from The COVID Tracking Project and population information through the U.S. Census Bureau.

To estimate the rate of illness among jail workers, we collected staffing numbers for each system before the pandemic, roughly in mid-March, plus in mid-April. In which current data wasn’t openly readily available, we obtained various other figures through our reporting, including phoning agencies or from state spending plan papers. In six states, we had been not able to get a hold of current staffing figures and thus would not determine rates: Alaska, Hawaii, Kentucky, Maryland, Montana, Utah.

As with all COVID-19 information, our knowledge of the spread and influence for the virus is bound by the availability of screening. Epidemiology and community health experts state that aside from several says which have recently begun aggressively testing in prisons, it’s likely that there are even more cases of COVID-19 circulating undetected in facilities. Sixteen prison methods, like the Federal Bureau of Prisons, will never release information about what number of prisoners these are typically testing.

Corrections departments in Indiana, Kansas, Montana, North Dakota and Wisconsin report coronavirus testing and situation information for juvenile services; western Virginia states numbers for juvenile services and jails. For consistency of contrast along with other condition jail methods, we removed those services from our information that had originally been included prior to July 28. Pennsylvania’s coronavirus information included screening and situations for those who have been circulated on parole. We removed these examinations and situations for prisoners from the information before July 28. The employees instances remain. Until very early November, western Virginia’s Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation did not disaggregate its staff figures by form of facility. Once they started offering itemized numbers on staff instances on Nov. 3, we only included staff figures from prisons and work release internet sites. We gone back to previous months and estimated the staff description on the basis of the total number of staff in each industry.

In Delaware, the sheer number of prisoner fatalities reported for Oct. 27 had been incorrect and should have been 11, perhaps not 17. It is often updated right here.

Early months of information for Vermont included multiple tests of the same prisoner. Beginning on 13, the information now accurately reflect the sheer number of individual prisoners tested in Vermont.

In Texas, changes toward information overcounted the sheer number of staff member examinations for months of May 13, might 20 and May 27 after the state redesigned its internet site and just how it categorized examinations for employees. These numbers have been amended.

In Georgia, the prisoner situations and recoveries unintentionally counted some situations in private prisons and county facilities two times, for most months before Sept. 15. These figures have been fixed through the entire data.

Starting the week of Summer 2, we moved our data collection up by 1 day. Information for the few days represents a six-day count of instances between might 28 and June 2.

When it comes to week of July 14, Michigan undertook a review of situations and found duplicates that must be taken off its unique figures. Thus, the sheer number of situations fallen by 5 per cent from previous week. To approximate instance counts for previous days, we modified the original figures by that percentage. As an extra outcome of the review, the prisoner test figures dropped by 717.

You start with the few days of July 21, South Carolina’s division of Corrections started to report cases—but not testing counts—for prisoners presented in “other locations,” such as county jails and hospitals.

The amount of staff deaths in Maine the week of July 21 was incorrect. It will being 0 and it has already been corrected.

Within the week of Aug. 4, the Federal Bureau of Prisons began to report four deaths of people that have been circulated to home confinement, underneath the guidance of halfway homes. Their particular evaluating and case totals, however, cannot integrate men and women on home confinement, and examination figures try not to include personal prisons.

In mid-August, Pennsylvania started stating instances for prisoners and staff in neighborhood correction facilities. We’ve included these instances you start with numbers at the time of Aug. 18, but updated inmate population numbers to incorporate people held in neighborhood corrections facilities. How many people recovered among both staff and prisoners don’t count individuals in community modifications services.

The full total range prisoner instances we reported dropped between Aug. 27 and Aug. 28, whenever we incorporated an information up-date from nj-new jersey that eliminated about 4 per cent of situations in early in the day days. New Jersey updated its prisoner situation totals to get rid of instances when a prisoner tested bad for COVID-19 after in the beginning testing good. To calculate case counts for earlier months, we modified the first numbers by that percentage.

How many staff situations we in the beginning reported for Sept. 22 and Sept. 29 in Massachusetts wrongly counted 100 additional cases within the condition. Hence, and also this showed a lot of staff instances nationwide. We now have updated the numbers and charts because of the accurate total for both of these days.

Reporting by Katie Park and Tom Meagher

Photos by Gabe Isman and Katie Park

Extra reporting by Cary Aspinwall, Keri Blakinger, Jake Bleiberg, Andrew R. Calderón, Maurice Chammah, Andrew DeMillo, Eli Hager, Jamiles Lartey, Claudia Lauer, Nicole Lewis, Weihua Li, Humera Lodhi, Colleen Long, Joseph Neff, Michelle Pitcher, Alysia Santo, Beth Schwartzapfel, Damini Sharma, Colleen Slevin, Christie Thompson, Abbie VanSickle, Adria Watson, Andrew Welsh-Huggins.

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